Tag: security bytes


The Role of RAM in Computer Performance

Understanding The Role of RAM in Computer Performance

Random-access memory (RAM) plays an integral role in mobile devices and desktop computers. It determines the operating capacity of a device at any given time. A computer processes data using RAM as a digital workspace for placing programs temporarily. In turn, your computer’s processor gains access to the relevant data quickly and easily.

Larger RAM space translates to more computing power, thanks to the larger space available to active programs. The computer processes information faster than a device with less RAM. For this reason, your PC can benefit from adding more RAM. You will find it easier to interact with resource-intensive apps and programs like video editing tools.

As a result, your computer can still operate optimally, even when running two or more heavy programs. With increased RAM, the apps can function properly without competing for workspace. The operating system (OS) no longer needs to perform increased code and data swapping between the resource access memory and the hard drive. Swapping is a common cause of poor processing performance.

Also, increased RAM enhances your ability to multitask using resource-intensive apps like Photoshop and Outlook. You can switch from one program to another without the operating system resorting to the page file to write the process memory. The page file relies on a slower hard drive for data storage.

Computer RAM Performance

Key RAM Parameters

Data transfer rate is an essential component of your computer’s random access memory speed. It refers to the amount of data processed by the central processing unit (CPU). On the other hand, most random access memory is double data rate (DDR) RAM. You can determine the RAM’s generation by the number appearing after the acronym, such as DDR4.

Additionally, RAM comes with a number indicating speed in megahertz (MHz). You can find devices with RAM speeds varying between DDR4-1600 and DDR4-3200. In the latter case, the RAM is the fourth generation with a data rate speed of 3,200MHz. It is vital to install random access memory in matched memory module pairs to maximize speed.

If your device comes with single memory or mismatched modules, you can expect 50 percent less than the specified data rate. For instance, DDR4-3200 operates at just 1,600MHz.

Another key component of RAM is timing or latency rate. This aspect is more complex than the data transfer rate. Computing devices come with timing or latency rate specifications formatted as 7-8-8-24. This set of numbers indicates the time random access memory takes to handle specific computing functions. Faster RAM has smaller numbers.

How to Determine Your RAM Requirements

The nature of programs you run on your computer or smartphone determines the ideal RAM you need to maximize processing power and overall performance. Most personal computers and workstations running apps like Excel and Word can function optimally with 8 GB of system memory.

To check your PC’s status, open the Task Manager. Doing so allows you to determine whether RAM is experiencing any overload. Most computers come with RAM of between 4 and 8 GB. Depending on your day-to-day activities, you may not need 16 GB of random access memory.

If your PC slows down as you work with multiple open browser tabs or streaming video content, you should consider upgrading the device’s RAM. Forcing the computer to rely on the hard drive does not yield the best performance. Without any overload, your PC’s RAM can perform at top speed.

You can optimize performance by reducing unnecessary programs (crapware or bloatware). Also, limit the number of background apps on your desktop or laptop device. In doing so, you make room for critical programs and day-to-day functions.

If you regularly run resource-intensive programs like Final Cut Pro or Photoshop, upgrade your computer to 32 GB of RAM. Opting for 16 GB RAM limits your wiggle room. With 32 GB of RAM, you can run photo editors together, and multiple browser tabs simultaneously.

For gaming, you need to consider 16 GB of RAM. This capacity allows you to play a game without any other background programs. However, you should opt for 32 GB of RAM if you want to run other programs while playing optimized games like Grand Theft Auto V. The best part is that gaming computers are highly customizable.

Keep in mind that adding more random memory access is useful when running multiple apps simultaneously. On the other hand, increased RAM does not affect the performance of individual programs.


Why Ransomware Attacks Are Increasing Globally

Ransomware Attacks Increase Globally

A spate of ransomware attacks aimed at United States companies, government agencies, and critical infrastructure has raised serious cybersecurity concerns. Bad actors recently attempted to attack the Republican National Committee.

A recent supply-chain attack on Kaseya’s VSA software had the potential to compromise the security of up to one million companies. This breach highlighted the need to enhance the cybersecurity capabilities of individual companies. As a result, private and public organizations are working tirelessly in collaboration with the government to find a lasting solution to the crisis.

Other attacks demonstrated the vulnerability of America’s critical infrastructure. For instance, Colonial Pipeline stalled its day-to-day operations following a ransomware attack on its systems. The event resulted in widespread panic as consumers feared imminent gas shortages throughout the United States.

Colonial Pipeline reportedly paid millions of dollars of ransom money in cryptocurrency to cybercriminals. On the upside, the federal government recovered a portion of the ransom amount.


Several federal agencies collaborated with other stakeholders to launch new cybersecurity initiatives. These interventions resulted in the launch of a portal to help American companies and communities find effective ways to stop ransomware attacks. StopRansomware.gov provides access to comprehensive ransomware resources. By taking advantage of the portal, organizations and individuals can learn to mitigate the risks posed by ransomware attacks.

Centralized ransomware resources eliminate the need for organizations and individuals to scour the internet for information. StopRansomware.gov aggregates information drawn from a wide selection of sources, including intelligence agencies, law enforcement, and tech experts.

Practical Measures to Stop Ransomware Attacks

Robust protections are necessary when looking to prevent ransomware attacks. In addition, organizations must maintain a proactive approach to maximize cyber defenses.

Here are specific interventions that can reduce the risk of attacks.

Develop Robust Cybersecurity Policies

You need to prepare for unexpected cybersecurity events by drafting robust policies. This approach ensures that your entire team, particularly the IT department staff, understands and follows specific security protocols. In addition, an effective policy defines roles and processes that apply in the event of an attack. Notifying specific stakeholders, such as vendors and partners, is an example of an essential step.

More importantly, your organization’s cybersecurity policy should guide staff on handling high-risk situations like suspicious emails.

Hardening Endpoints

By hardening endpoints, you close gaps that may exist in your systems. Default configurations often leave a few vulnerable points. For this reason, it is vital to rely on CIS Benchmarks, allowing you to implement standard configurations. In turn, you block malicious downloads and access to risky websites. These configurations help limit your organization’s exposure to ransomware risk.

Review Port Settings

To prevent ransomware from exploiting port settings and compromising your network security, consider restricting connections to trusted hosts. Leaving port 445 (server message block (SMB)) and port 3389 (remote desktop protocol (RDP)) open creates a vulnerability. You should review port configurations for your organization’s cloud and on-premise environments. Experts recommend disabling dormant ports.

Bolster Email Security

Bad actors typically compromise security by delivering ransomware via email. To counteract the threat, you need to secure email gateways. You can protect your infrastructure using advanced solutions, including post-delivery protection technologies. These technologies leverage artificial intelligence to detect and counteract phishing attacks.

You can count on the solutions to filter email messages through attachment sandboxing and URL defenses.

User Awareness Training

A vigilant workforce provides a crucial defensive layer against ransomware attacks. With user awareness training, your staff can learn how to identify and report suspicious files, emails, or activity. Additionally, employees can stop engaging in risky activities, such as visiting unsafe websites via their workstations.

This type of training enhances user awareness, thanks to phishing simulation sessions. Your system administrators use specially designed technologies to deliver mock phishing emails to staff members. In turn, employees can practice identifying suspicious emails.

Deploy Web Filtering Technologies

Web filtering and isolation measures help protect your infrastructure by blocking access to unsafe websites. The technologies can also detect and stop malicious file downloads. In doing so, you prevent ransomware attacks, which may come in the form of viruses.

When configured properly, web or DNS filters can block malware and ads more aggressively. Another useful measure is deploying isolation technologies capable of isolating users’ browsing activity through secure servers. Isolation ensures that the content delivered to users’ workstations is safe. Malicious software executed in the secure server cannot leave the containment area, protecting your organization’s infrastructure.

This approach is undoubtedly one of the most effective ways to prevent ransomware attacks.


A Basic Guide to the New Microsoft Teams Client (2.0) and Windows 11

Microsoft Teams and Windows 11

Microsoft recently announced the introduction of Windows 11, which comes with the MS Teams video conferencing app. The revamped operating system has a refreshing new start menu, and a user interfaces design. It can also run Android apps.

The availability of Teams provides a more convenient way for users to communicate with colleagues, friends, and family. To start chatting, users simply need to open a chat window. This new feature allows individuals to add contacts and communicate through group or individual chats.

With Teams, you can connect with people without worrying about security issues. On the other hand, the Windows 11 integration enables screen sharing, video calling, and meetings. More importantly, you can connect for free.

Microsoft Teams

Key New Microsoft Teams Client (2.0) Features

Microsoft Teams 2.0 dropped Electron and now relies on Edge Webview 2, eliminating the need for a browser address bar. Instead, you can run Teams via a separate window. These changes create a native app experience in Windows 11. The Edge browser now has limited utility in the app.

According to reports, Teams 2.0 provides a smoother, faster experience compared to the current desktop application. The improved speed and functionality are more noticeable on lower-end devices. You can enjoy optimal performance, even if you use a Core 13 (10th-gen) and 4GB of RAM,

Reduced Memory Usage

Another key improvement is the reduced memory usage by the Teams 2.0 app. It launches faster, reducing the waiting time for the loading screen to initialize. WebView 2 integration and MS Edge background processes enhance performance and taper down memory usage.

Teams 2.0 also comes with an adaptive interface to streamline app window resizing. Additionally, the video conferencing application integrates with all Windows 10 features. Integration ensures that Teams is compatible with native notifications and other features.

Improved Performance

When it comes to the new Teams client, Microsoft developers focused on performance and consumers’ needs. On the other hand, the client will stay up to date, thanks to Edge WebView. In turn, the video conferencing app remains secure with the latest updates. The client supports enhanced PowerPoint integration and multiple accounts.

Microsoft Teams 2.0 takes advantage of embedded web technologies like JavaScript, CSS, and HTML. Likewise, the app taps into the power of the Chromium rendering engine.

Connections via Teams 2.0 allow you to communicate with personal contacts, even if they have not yet downloaded and installed the app. In such cases, you can communicate via a two-way short message service (SMS)

What You Need to Know About Windows 11

With Windows 11, Microsoft has redesigned the popular operating system to enhance ease of use, creativity, and productivity. It comes with a clean, fresh appearance. Also, the design maximizes user control.

You can find Start easier, thanks to its central placement. This prominent feature also displays your recent files by connecting to the cloud and Microsoft 365. As a result, it becomes easier to access recent files, irrespective of the device or platform you use. It is also possible to access files viewed on an iOS or Android device.

Enhanced Flexibility

Another set of new features in Windows 11 include snap layouts, desktops, and snap groups. These features enhance flexibility by enabling you to multitask more efficiently. You no longer need to worry about getting lost in the maze of multiple windows. Instead, you can conveniently optimize the screen and organize multiple open windows on your device.

Windows 11 allows you to create multiple desktops to maximize flexibility and organization. Each desktop focuses on a specific professional or personal aspect. You can customize the desktops to suit your preferences or a particular theme. With multiple desktops, you can assign separate spaces for gaming, school, or work.

The best part about the redesigned operating system is that it simplifies the user experience. It eliminates the need to grapple with complex functionality and features. In turn, you can focus on boosting productivity or enjoying leisure activities.

Improved Communication With MS Teams

Integrated Microsoft Teams provides a faster, convenient way to stay in touch with colleagues, friends, and family. You can now rely on an improved Teams 2.0 app to communicate with people regardless of location. In addition, Windows 11 comes with a chat feature accessible via the taskbar. This feature connects you through video, voice, text, and chat.

You can reach out to your contacts without worrying about the device they use. MS Teams’ chat feature allows you to connect, even if your contacts use iOS or Android mobile devices. Two-way SMS connections are also possible, thanks to the power of Teams 2.0.


How New Windows Server 2022 Features Improve Hybrid Integration and Security

How New Windows Server 2022 Features Improve Hybrid Integration and Security

Microsoft recently announced the preview of the latest Windows Server. The new release comes with several key features, such as Azure automanage (hotpatching) and virtualization-based security (VBS). Windows Server 2022 allows users to leverage the cloud to maximize uptime and keep virtual machines (VMs) up to date. It introduces enhanced security features and Azure hybrid integration and management.

Windows Server now has an Azure edition, thanks to Microsoft’s plans to promote Azure as the ideal platform for hosting the 2022 release. The integrated edition provides access to features unavailable outside of Azure Stack and the public cloud. In addition, you can also expect enhanced integration with various cloud services, such as Azure App Service. Windows Admin Center (WAC) and Azure Automanage.

Windows Server 2022

Security Enhancements

Microsoft has enrolled Windows Server 2022 into its Secured-Core program. The 2022 release derives several security benefits from the program’s features. These benefits include the secure operating system, firmware, and hardware features, which provide robust protection against sophisticated cyber attacks.

Secured-Core servers maximize security, thanks to the advanced protection measures deployed at the software and hardware layers. The security features include Windows Defender System Guard. According to Microsoft, companies can take advantage of verifiable security solutions to maintain the integrity of operating systems. These measures harden defenses against firmware attacks.

Windows Server 2022 ensures faster and secure connectivity because it enables TLS 1.3 by default. This configuration protects your organization from attacks by safeguarding HTTPS connections. On the other hand, the 2022 release comes with DNS over HTTPS (DoH) and Secure DNS.

Microsoft improved fileserver features to maximize security for connections using SMB AES-256 encryption. Likewise, internal cluster communication relies on East-West SMB encryption controls. The best part about the enhanced connection security in Windows Server 2022 is that encryption does not affect performance. This benefit is particularly true for the Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA).

Additional Security Improvements in Windows Server 2022

  • Virtualization-based security (VBS): Leverages the hardware virtualization capabilities of Hyper-V technology to protect control flow guard (CFG) bitmap modification. VBS also verifies the validity of EV certificates.
  • Memory protection: Helps secure technologies that store sensitive data in memory while the system is operational. Malicious software in a drive plugged into a port cannot read data stored by security solutions like Bitlocker. Boot direct memory access (DMA) prevents such attacks.
  • SMB VPN for remote workers: This feature is critical for high-security organizations looking to maximize network protection for mobile users. Meanwhile, SMB over QUIC employs TLS 1.3 encrypted tunnel to avoid exposing server message block (SMB) traffic to the network. The best part is that functions like authorization and authentication work optimally inside the tunnel.

Azure Hybrid Capabilities in Windows Server 2022

The 2022 release makes it easier to expand your data centers to Azure without compromising agility and efficiency. Additional capabilities you should know about include improved admin center reporting, application compatibility, enhanced server management, and streamlined update installation.

Windows Admin Center

You can now report the state of secure-core features via the Windows admin center. It is also possible to allow some customers to activate specific features.

Azure Arc Enabled Windows Servers

With Azure Arc, the 2022 release integrates multi-cloud and on-premise Windows Servers with Azure. The integration streamlines the management experience to ensure consistency with Azure virtual machine administration. Once you connect a hybrid machine to Azure, it operates as a resource and a connected machine.

Application Platform Improvements

Microsoft improved several platform functions for Windows containers. As a result, you can expect a better experience for the container with Kubernetes and app compatibility. More importantly, the tech giant significantly reduced the image size in the Windows container. This change translates to reduced startup time and improved overall performance.

Azure Automanage – Hotpatch

Windows Server 2022 Datacenter: Azure Edition is compatible with Hotpatch, a component of Azure Automanage. This new feature eliminates the need to reboot after installing updates on the Azure Edition virtual machines (VMs).

Additional Key Features

Other notable Windows Server 2022 features include nested virtualization for AMD processors, improved storage migration service, and SMB compression. With the nested virtualization, you can operate a Hyper-V inside a virtual machine, thanks to AMD processors. This capability expands hardware options for your organization’s environments.

In addition, you can now compress server message block (SMB) files during transmission over the network. This functionality is available to users and applications; it eliminates the need to handle file compression manually.


Uncovering the Complexity and Potential Future Trends of Cyber Threats Faced by the U.S.

Uncovering the Complexity and Potential Future Trends of Cyber Threats Faced by the U.S.

America’s critical infrastructure, the Federal government, and commercial institutions are undoubtedly under attack. The sophisticated cyber threats facing the country emanate from various parts of the world. A wide selection of state actors and hacker groups are working tirelessly to paralyze critical infrastructure, steal sensitive information, and conduct cyber warfare.

These threats are also directed at individuals. Cybercriminals hack into computers, smartphones, and databases to steal social security numbers, credit card details, and login credentials.

Recent Attacks

In recent months, the U.S. has experienced a spate of ransomware attacks aimed at critical infrastructure, government agencies, and prominent companies. The targets include the Colonial Pipeline, municipal servers, and a meat-producing company, JBS. According to reports, attackers netted ransom money worth approximately $350 million in 2020 alone. Victims paid the ransom using digital currencies – mainly Bitcoin.

Ransomware attacks also affected healthcare centers, police departments, educational institutions, and the state government in 2020.

The United States witnessed a sharp rise in ransomware attacks following the Colonial Pipeline hacking. Cities and ferries took hits as bad actors intensified their illegal activities.

According to recent reports, hacker groups have been targeting federal networks for many years. More than three billion attacks occur in the United States annually. On the other hand, the cost of hardening the security of networks is significantly high. A Bloomberg study revealed that government agencies could block up to 95 percent of attacks by increasing cybersecurity budgets sevenfold.

Sources of Attacks

A report presented to Congress in 2011 showed that China and Russia employ hacking to steal sensitive technology and economic information. The report stated that these two countries adopted the strategy as part of their national policies. Information stolen from the United States helps Russia and China gain a competitive advantage. Both countries view the U.S. as a strategic competitor.

China boasts the most advanced cyber espionage and warfare capabilities. It leverages its extensive resources to launch aggressive cyberattacks on the United States and other countries. The Asian country hosts countless hacker groups and cyber warfare military units. These groups and units work tirelessly to deploy logic bombs in strategic U.S. targets.

Meanwhile, Russia takes advantage of its technological prowess to launch sophisticated attacks against specific targets. The country allegedly launched attacks against Estonia and Georgia’s government and banking websites.


The Colonial Pipeline incident triggered serious concerns about cybersecurity in the oil industry. It forced President Joe Biden to sign an executive order to harden cyber defenses of the nation’s businesses, government agencies, and critical infrastructure.

Congress approved a bill to invest $500 billion in local and state cybersecurity. However, various stakeholders still need to implement more changes before the crisis comes under control. Some experts recommend enforcing strict cybersecurity guidelines for privately owned critical infrastructure.

Approximately 85 percent of critical infrastructure in the United States is in private hands. The companies operate water systems, electric grids, and pipelines. A significant portion of the critical infrastructure is vulnerable to ransomware attacks and other cyber threats.

On the other hand, experts consider the ransomware problem as far from over. As such, private companies and the government need to invest heavily in robust measures to thwart future threats.


Law enforcement agencies face considerable challenges when it comes to stopping the spate of cyberattacks. Hacking groups and state actors employ highly sophisticated tactics from multiple locations worldwide. In some cases, governments help protect criminals from prosecution or extradition.

Limited consequences to cybercrime contribute to the rising cases. As a result, American law enforcers explore legal and diplomatic channels to arrest the bad actors. The attackers’ capabilities also present another challenge to intervention efforts by local authorities.

Criminals prefer ransom payments in cryptocurrencies due to anonymity benefits. Colonial Pipeline paid $4.4 million in Bitcoin to recover its systems. Although the FBI confiscated some of the Bitcoin, bad actors claimed some degree of success.

Many cyber criminals use hacking tool kits sold on the dark web. It is also ironic that the National Security Agency (NSA) developed some tools employed by hackers. The tools ended up in the wrong hands after a hacking group known as Shadow Brokers allegedly infiltrated another group run by the NSA.

Shadow Brokers released the tool that helped other cybercriminals unleash the WannaCry ransomware attack. More than 45,000 targets in 99 countries took hits in the attack. United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) was one of the most prominent targets.